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The U.S. – Dakota War of 1862

A Historical Overview
Instructor:
Colin Mustful
14 students enrolled
English [Auto-generated]
At the end of this course, students will be able to critically evaluate the U.S. - Dakota War of 1862, when, why, and how it happened.
At the end of this course, students will be able to identify the people and events that were relevant to the U.S. - Dakota War of 1862.
At the end of this course, students will be able to place the U.S. - Dakota War within its historical context with an understanding of the various influences and perspectives involved.

This course is an introduction to the U.S. – Dakota War of 1862.  It offers a broad glance at the people, places, and events that contributed to this important and tragic part of Minnesota history.  Beginning from pre-European contact, this course on the U.S. – Dakota War creates a context for understanding what happened and why.  Throughout the course, you will learn about the Dakota people and culture.  You will learn about traders, missionaries, and settlers that came to Minnesota and how they impacted the Dakota way of living.  You will learn how the land exchanged hands through a series of treaties.  You will learn how all these factors contributed the outbreak of War in Minnesota in 1862.  Finally, you will learn about war itself and its unfortunate aftermath.  By the end of this course, you will have a much better understanding of what the U.S. – Dakota War was and who was involved as well as a much deeper interest in this important history.    

Introduction

1
Introduction

Dakota Homeland

1
Learning Targets
2
Dakota Homeland

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Map "Minnesota Territory," Wikimedia Commons

Photo "Robert Hopkins Chaska near Dr. Thomas Williamson's Pajutazee mission near the Yellow Medicine Agency," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.1C r14

Painting "Attack on the Barracks," by David Geister, Minnesota Historical Society Exhibits Department

Painting "Attack on New Ulm during the Sioux Outbreak August 19th - 23rd, 1862," by Anton Gag, 1904, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1990.32.2

"Framed color Lithograph 'Execution of the 38 Dakota at Mankato, Minnesota, December 26, 1862'," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, 615

Photo "People escaping from the Indian massacre of 1862, at Dinner on a Prairie," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S p53

Photo "Henry H. Sibley," 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 7052 r3

Photo "Captured Sioux Indians fenced enclosure on Minnesota River below Fort Snelling," 1862 or 1863, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S p53

Photo "Ms. Lavina Eastlick and children, Merton (older) and Johnny (baby)," 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 13378 r1

Sketch "Hoohamaza, Traditional Indian," by Frank Blackwell Mayer, 1851, Edward A. Ayers Collection, Newberry Library

Map "Aboriginal Map of North American denoting the boundaries and Locations of Various Indian Tribes," 1857, The House of Commons, Britain

Painting "From Fort Snelling Looking Up," by Seth Eastman, 1846-1848, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1991.85.13

Painting "Pilots Knob. Mouth of the St. Peters River," by Seth Eastman, 1846-1848, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1991.85.23

Graph "Seven Council Fires of the Dakota, Nakota, and Lakota," by Cassie Theurer, North Dakota Studies Program, State Historical Society of North Dakota

Map "Forced to Negotiate," rights unknown, sourced from Professor Olsen @ Large, http://diogensii.wordpress.com/2013/12/06/december-6-1862-a-saturday


3
Key People

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Photo "Little Crow," from The Indian Dispossessed by Seth K. Humphrey, p. 288

Photo "Wa-pa-sha, A Sioux Chief," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.1W r21

Photo "1858 Indian Treaty Delegation to Washington," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.51 h3

Photo "Robert Hopkins Chaska near Dr. Thomas Williamson's Pajutazee mission near the Yellow Medicine Agency," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.1C r14

Photo "Anptu-tokeca (John Other Day)," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.1A r3

Photo "Abbie Gardner Sharp, photographed decades after the massacre from History of Iowa From the Earliest Times to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century," Wikimedia Commons

Photo "1858 Indian Treaty Delegation to Washington," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.51 h3

Sketch "Charles Flandrau meeting with John Other Day," from Grace at Spirit Lake, illustration by Bennett Berning

Photo "Charles E. Flandrau," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 8606 r1

Photo "People escaping from the Indian massacre of 1862, at Dinner on a Prairie," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S p53

4
Discussion Questions and Practice Activity

Now that you've learned that Minnesota is the homeland of the Dakota people, take some time to discuss with others questions relating to this topic.  Then, complete the practice activity.  

5
Dakota Homeland Quiz

Once you have completed the lectures and activities, you are ready for the Quiz!

A New Presence

1
Learning Targets
2
A New Presence

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Map "The Louisiana Purchase," from the National Atlas of the United States, Wikimedia Commons

Photo "Zebulon M. Pike," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 20435 p2

Painting "Valley of the St. Peters," by Seth Eastman, 1848, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1991.85.22

Painting "Fort Snelling," by John Caspar Wild, 1844, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1998.45.348

"Fort Snelling, Minnesota," 1830, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1999.200

"Lawrence Taliaferro," 1830, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1988.45.365

Painting "Fort Snelling in 1848. Head of Navigation," by Seth Eastman, 1848, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1991.85.35

Painting "Indian Graves at the Mouth of the St. Peters," by Seth Eastman, 1847, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1989.44.281

Painting "Indian Village on the Mississippi Near Fort Snelling," by Seth Eastman, 1846-1848, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1991.85.37

Painting, "Fort Snelling from Two Miles Below," by Seth Eastman, 1846-1848, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1989.44.280

 

3
Key People

Image Attribution in the order they appear.

Photo "Zebulon M. Pike," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 20435 p2

"Lawrence Taliaferro," 1830, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1988.45.365


4
Discussion Questions and Practice Activity

Now that you've learned that the United States government represented a new presence in Minnesota, take some time to discuss with others questions relating to this topic.  Then, complete the practice activity.  

5
A New Presence Quiz

The Fur Trade and Missionaries

1
Learning Targets
2
The Fur Trade and Missionaries

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Painting "Quetico Superior Route, passing a Waterfall," by Frances Anne Hopkins, 1869, Wikimedia Commons

Sketch "Old Trading House," by Frank Blackwell Mayer, 1851, Edward A. Ayers Collection, Newberry Library

"The Trading Store," 1876, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, HD2.1 p3

"White Traders Bartering with Indians," 1820, from the National Museum of American History, Wikimedia Commons

Photo "Bishop Henry B. Whipple," 1890, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 11890 p3

"Thomas Williamson," 1860, from usdakotawar.org and attributed to Jeff Williamson

Photo "Robert Hopkins Chaska near Dr. Thomas Williamson's Pajutazee mission near the Yellow Medicine Agency," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.1C r14

Sketch "Little Crow," by Frank Blackwell Mayer, 1851, Edward A. Ayers Collection, Newberry Library

"Little Crow," by F. Jay Haynes, 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 2002.169.352

Photo "Reverend Stephen and Mary Riggs," 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 19568 p1

Photo "Reverend Stephen Riggs," 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 19568 r1

Photo "Hazelwood Mission Station of Reverend Stephen R. Riggs, Yellow Medicine County," 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, MY2.73 p1


3
Key People

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Photo "Henry H. Sibley," 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 7052 r3

"Henry Hastings Sibley," by John Bligh, 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 2016.84

Photo "Reverend Stephen Riggs," 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 19568 r1

Photo "Reverend Stephen and Mary Riggs," 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 19568 p1

4
Discussion Questions and Practice Activity

Now that you've learned about the fur traders and missionaries and how they changed the way of life for the Dakota people, take some time to discuss with others questions relating to this topic.  Then, complete the practice activity.  

5
The Fur Trade and Missionaries Quiz

Signing Treaties

1
Learning Targets
2
Signing Treaties

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Map "The Frontier Moves West, 1790-1890," from conservapedia.com, image rights unknown

Excerpt from Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties, edited by Joseph Kappler, Volume 4, 1929, p. 1148

Map "Minnesota Land Cession Treaties," from "Treaties with Minnesota Indians," www.kstrom.net

1837 Treaty Map by Colin Mustful

Painting "Treaty of Traverse des Sioux," by Frank Blackwell Mayer, 1885, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1998.45.313

Sketch "Winona," by Frank Blackwell Mayer, 1851, Edward A. Ayers Collection, Newberry Library

Sketch "Hoohamaza, Traditional Indian," by Frank Blackwell Mayer, 1851, Edward A. Ayers Collection, Newberry Library

"Little Crow Village on the Mississippi," from New York Illustrated News, 1853

Excerpt of Traders' Paper from usdakotawar.org

Sketch "Camp at Traverse des Sioux," by Frank Blackwell Mayer, 1851, Edward A. Ayers Collection, Newberry Library

Sketch "Frank Blackwell Mayer," by A. White, 1851, Edward A. Ayers Collection, Newberry Library


3
Key People

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Sketch "Frank Blackwell Mayer," by A. White, 1851, Edward A. Ayers Collection, Newberry Library

Sketch "View from Camp," by Frank Blackwell Mayer, 1851, Edward A. Ayers Collection, Newberry Library

Sketch "Summer Lodge," by Frank Blackwell Mayer, 1851, Edward A. Ayers Collection, Newberry Library

"Alexander Ramsey," 1850, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 11918 p28

"Joseph R. Brown," 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 15335 p2


4
Discussion Questions and Practice Activity

Now that you've learned how the United States acquired the land in Minnesota from the Dakota people, take some time to discuss with others questions relating to this topic.  Then, complete the practice activity.  

5
Signing Treaties Quiz

A Broken System

1
Learning Targets
2
A Broken System

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Map "Treaty of Traverse des Sioux 1851," by Charles C. Royce, 1896, Wikimedia Commons

Photo "Dakota Indians at Williamson's home near Yellow Medicine," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.7U r3

Photo "Little Crow," from The Indian Dispossessed by Seth K. Humphrey, p. 288

Photo "Anpetu-tokeca (John Other Day)," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.1A r3

Photo "Thomas J. Galbraith," 1861, from usdakotawar.org, Minnesota Historical Society Collections

"Alexander Ramsey," 1850, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 11918 p28

"Franklin Steele," 1856, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 15571 p2

"Andrew Myrick," 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 20437 p1

Photo "View of St. Paul at the corner of Third and Robert Streets," 1851, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, MRZ.9 SP1b p30

Photo "1858 Indian Treaty Delegation to Washington," 1858, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.51 h3

Photo "Dakota Women Winnowing Wheat," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.32 r14

Photo "Lorenzo and his mother full blooded Sioux Indians," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.1T p7

3
Key People

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Excerpt of George E.H. Day to President Abraham Lincoln, January 1, 1862, from usdakotawar.org

Photo "Thomas J. Galbraith," from usdakotawar.org, Minnesota Historical Society Collections

Photo "Bishop Henry B. Whipple," 1890, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 11890 p3


4
Discussion Questions and Practice Activity

Now that you've learned about the flaws within the Indian or Reservation System, take some time to discuss with others questions relating to this topic.  Then, complete the practice activity.  

5
A Broken System Quiz

The U.S. - Dakota War of 1862

1
Learning Targets
2
The U.S. - Dakota War of 1862

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Photo "Indian Women and Children Guarding Corn from Blackbirds," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.21 r10

Photo "Lower Sioux Agency Warehouse," 2012, Wikimedia Commons

"Andrew Myrick," 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 20437 p1

Drawing "Scene of the Acton Murders, August 18, 1862," by Dan Nelson, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1988.45.582

Illustration, "Alfred Riggs Outside Little Crow's Home," by Jamar Smith, 2013, rights by Colin Mustful

Photo "Little Crow," from The Indian Dispossessed by Seth K. Humphrey, p. 288

Map "Location of the Buildings at the Lower Agency, 1862," by Marion P. Satterlee, rights unknown

Painting "Ambush at Redwood Ferry," by David Geister, Minnesota Historical Society Exhibits Department

"Fort Ridgely," 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1989.44.387

Photo "People escaping from the Indian massacre of 1862, at Dinner on a Prairie," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S r16

Painting "Lorenzo Lawrence Rescue," by David Geister, Minnesota Historical Society Exhibits Department

Painting "Attack on New Ulm during the Sioux Outbreak August 19th-23rd, 1862," by Anton Gag, 1904, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1990.32.2

"Henry H. Sibley," 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 7052 r3

"Henry H. Sibley," 1865, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 7052 r9

Map "Southern Minnesota, 1862," Pond Dakota Heritage Society

Painting "Battle of Birch Coulee," by Dorothea Paul, 1975, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1988.45.61

Painting, "The Battle of Birch Coulee," by Paul C. Biersach, 1912, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1998.19

Painting "Surprise at Wood Lake," by David Geister, Wood Lake Battlefield Preservation Society

Photo "Camp Release," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S r23


3
Key People

Image attribution in the order they appear.

"Andrew Myrick," 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 20437 p1

Photo "Lorenzo and his mother full blooded Sioux Indians," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.1T p7

Painting "Lorenzo Lawrence Rescue" by David Geister, Minnesota Historical Society Exhibits Department

Photo of Paul Mazekutemani, image source unknown, likely held by the Minnesota Historical Society Collections

Photo "Sarah F. Wakefield," from usdakotawar.org and attributed to the St. Paul Pioneer Press


4
Discussion Questions and Practice Activity

Now that you've learned about the U.S. - Dakota War of 1862, take some time to discuss with others questions relating to this topic.  Then, complete the practice activity.  

5
The U.S. - Dakota War of 1862 Quiz

Trials, Executions, and Exile

1
Learning Targets
2
Trials, Executions, and Exile

This is a posted correction on material stated in this lecture:  President Lincoln did not commute the sentences of the convicted Dakota men.  Rather, he approved 39 convictions of capital punishment while the remainder were to be determined later.  Also, William Duley, the man who cut the rope at the hangings, did not lose his wife and five children.  Rather, three children were killed while his wife and two other children were taken captive.  At the time of the hangings they were presumed dead but were later rescued.  

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Photo "Camp Release," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S r23

Photo "Indian Jail for U.S. - Dakota War Captives," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S p82

"White boy identifying Indian who took part in Dakota Uprising," from Harper's Weekly, 1862

Photo of Abraham Lincoln, image source unknown

Photo of Dakota woman and two children, image source unknown, likely held by the Minnesota Historical Society Collections

"The Attack at New Ulm," from Harper's New Monthly Magazine, June 1863, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S p21

Photo "Captured Sioux Indians in fenced enclosure on Minnesota River Below Fort Snelling," by Benjamin Franklin Upton, 1862 or 1863, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S p53

"Execution of Dakota Indians, Mankato, Minnesota," by J. Thullen, 1884, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1988.45.426

"Framed Color Lithograph 'Execution of the 38 Dakota at Mankato, Minnesota, December 26, 1862'," by Hayes Lithograph Company, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, 615

Photo "Monument Indicating There Were Thirty-Eight Sioux Indians Hanged Following the U.S. - Dakota War of 1862, Mankato," 1920, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, MB8.9 MK6 p1

"Execution of the thirty-eight Sioux Indians at Mankato," by W.H. Childs, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S r13

Excerpt from Public Laws of the United States of America Passed at the First Session of the Thirty-Seventh Congress," edited by George P. Sanger, p. 819

Map "Route of the Dakota Removal," by Cassie Theurer adapted from original by Alan Ominsky, North Dakota Studies, State Historical Society of North Dakota

3
Key People

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Sketch "Joseph Godfrey" by R.O. Sweeny, Minnesota Historical Society Collections

Photo "Chaska," 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.1C r8

Photo "Sarah F. Wakefield," from usdakotawar.org, attributed to St. Paul Pioneer Press

Photo of Abraham Lincoln, image source unknown


4
Discussion Questions and Practice Activity

Now that you've learned about the trials, executions, and exile that followed the U.S. - Dakota War of 1862, take some time to discuss with others questions relating to this topic.  Then, complete the practice activity.  

5
Trials, Executions, and Exile - Quiz

Review and Conclusion

1
Review and Conclusion

Image attribution in the order they appear.

Painting "Attack on New Ulm during the Sioux Outbreak August 19th - 23rd, 1862," by Anton Gag, 1904, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1990.32.2

"The Attack at New Ulm," from Harper's New Monthly Magazine, June 1863, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S p21

Painting "The St. Peters River near its confluence with the Mississippi," by Seth Eastman, 1848, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, AV 1991.85.12

"Little Crow Village on the Mississippi," from the New York Illustrated News, 1853

Map of the Louisiana Purchase from the National Atlas of the United States, Wikimedia Commons

"Zebulon M. Pike," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 20435 p2

Sketch "Henry Belland," by Frank Blackwell Mayer, 1851, Edward A. Ayers Collection, Newberry Library

"Frontier Trading Post, 1785," by C.W. Jefferys, rights unknown

Photo "Reverend Stephen and Mary Riggs," 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 19568 p1

Photo "View of St. Paul at the corner of Third and Roberts Streets," 1851, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, MRZ.9 SP1b p30

Painting "Treaty of Traverse des Sioux," by Francis Davis Millet, 1905, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, FM6.15G p16

Map "Treaty of Traverse des Sioux, 1851," created by the Bureau of American Ethnology Indian Land Cession series maps for Iowa, Minnesota, and the Dakotas by Charles Royce, 2009, Wikimedia Commons

Photo "Robert Hopkins Chaska near Dr. Thomas Williamson's Pajutazee mission near the Yellow Medicine Agency," by Adrian J. Ebell, 1862, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.1C r14

Photo "Anpetu-tokeca (John Other Day)," Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.1A r3

Photo "Red Iron," 1865, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, Reverse Album 58, no. 2

"Alexander Ramsey," 1850, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por11918 p28

"Franklin Steele," 1856, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 15571 p2

"Andrew Myrick," 1860, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, por 20437 p1

Illustration "Alfred Riggs outside of Little Crow's Home," by Bennett Berning, rights by Colin Mustful

Photo "Little Crow," from The Indian Dispossessed by Seth K. Humphrey

Map "1862 Dakota Conflict Sites," by Kevin Callahan, rights unknown

Painting "Surprise at Wood Lake," by David Geister, Wood Lake Battlefield Preservation Society

"White boy identifying Indian who took part in Dakota Uprising," from Harper's Weekly, 1862

"Framed Color Lithograph 'Execution of the 38 Dakota at Mankato, Minnesota, December 26, 1862'," by Hayes Lithograph Company, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, 615

Photo "Captured Sioux Indians in fenced enclosure on Minnesota River Below Fort Snelling," by Benjamin Franklin Upton, 1862 or 1863, Minnesota Historical Society Collections, E91.4S p53

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